The Buftons of Commercial Drive: A Biographical Sketch

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The Bufton family opened a store on Commercial Drive in the early 1920s. By the time they closed their business in the 1980s, they had become Drive royalty, both as a result of their corporate longevity and also because of their active involvement in so many of the issues that faced Grandview in those years.i

Catherine Bufton (nee Drake) was born in Gloucester, England, in 1881.  She emigrated to Manitoba where she married Hubert Bufton, an immigrant from Sussex, four years her junior, whom she had met in England. Hubert worked in the telephone service in England and was seconded as a lineman to Manitoba in 1909. They were living in St. Vital in 1911 when their son, Cyril Frank, was born. When World War I broke out, Hubert, then a clerk, enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary Forces (CEF). At the time of his enlistment he was 5’5” tall, with blue eyes and brown hair, and a member of the Church of England. He was made a sergeant, probably because he had had four years of training with the East Kent Buffs of the British Territorial Army before his emigration.ii

Catherine and their son Frank moved to England, staying with her mother in Gloucestershire, until 1919, at which time the family returned to Canada. After Hubert’s demobilization, they came to Vancouver as Hubert was invalided to Shaughnessy Hospital. Upon his release from hospital, Hubert worked as a telephone mechanic. They lived at first at 2815 Graveley, and then rented a 7-room house at 2541 E. 4th Avenue for $30 a month. By the time of the 1921 census, Hubert was employed by the Canadian Westinghouse Co. making $1,150 a year.iii

During the time he spent at Shaughnessy Hospital, Hubert and Catherine had learned the art of basket weaving. They put this to use by opening Grandview Florists & Basketry at 1520 Commercial in 1922, living first on Salsbury Drive and then in an apartment above the shop.iv

The couple had a daughter, Mary Adeline, known as “Rosebud”, in 1924. She had a difficult infancy, weighing only two pounds at birth and needing a long stay in hospital.

“Immediately after birth Rosebud was taken to the Vancouver General hospital and there placed in an Incubator and fed mother’s milk through the medium of an eye dropper; one drop at a time. For weeks she lay in an almost unconscious state but gradually ‘came to life’ under the unremitting care and attention of Dr. K. Funk and Nurse Trethewey, the latter of whom devoted practically all her whole time to the wee tot.”

By the time she was two, however, her health had improved so well that she was proudly entered into Beautiful Baby contests.v

At about this same time, their son Frank met George Wong at the Pacific National Exhibition (PNE). Wong helped pay for Frank to go on the rides, and they became life-long friends.vi

Meanwhile, the florist business was doing well. The Buftons kept “an exceedingly choice stock of all kinds of plants and flowers” and in 1925 they even offered a silver cup as the prize for the best garden in Grandview. Though Hubert was fined $25 and costs for paying girls less than the statutory minumum wage in 1928, this seems to have been an isolated incident and did not affect the family’s standing in the community.vii

In fact, the Buftons were great joiners. Hubert was presumably a Mason as Catherine was a senior member of the Order of the Eastern Star, a fraternal organization open to the spouses of Master Masons. Hubert himself was a member of the Grandview Chamber of Commerce and was elected to their board in 1927. During 1928, Catherine pressed for the formation of a Women’s Auxillary for the Chamber and she was appointed the founding President of the section.viii

The Auxillary’s first major project, devised and organized by Catherine, was the War Memorial flagstaff and plaque in Grandview Park, which was dedicated in November 1930. On a day that suffered from “adverse weather”, Mayor Malkin gave a brief but “stirring” speech and massed choirs sang “O Canada”, “For All The Saints” and “O God Our Help In Ages Past.” Finally, the solemn ceremony was completed with two minutes’ silence, and the successful day was rounded out by the running of the Grandview Marathon.ix

In the following year, Hubert was elected to the Executive Board of the Florists’ section of the Retail Merchants’ Asociation, and head of their Social Committee. In 1932, both he and Catherine were enthusiastic supporters of the newly-formed Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). By early 1936, Hubert was on the executive of the Grandview CCF Club and their son Frank,who was now working as a salesman in the store, had been elected as a District Council delegate.x

Frank was already involved with the Young Canada Club whch met in Bufton’s Hall, a space behind the store that was used by many local organizations for meetings. The Club had been formed in 1933, at the height of the Depression by John Summers to lobby for unemployed youth:

“Our aim is to canvass business executives in the City. That is our first aim. We are anxious to place members in any work, preferably where they can learn trades or professions and thus become real citizens.”xi

Branches of the Club were formed in various part of the City and they were given a boost in a newspaper column written by Prof. Edward Odlum. He wrote that he knew many of the young men involved and could speak well of their character.

“Such a club withn our borders,” he wrote “is of high value from every standpoint … In these days, when so many men and women are driven into deepest anxiety and despair, it is a great oasis in the desert of human depression to find a body of men who are ready and willing to manfully earn a living and give honest labour to those who need their services.”xii

By the beginning of 1934, Frank was president of the Club, which then had about 120 members, and he attended a number of importnt meetings in the City. In late December 1933, he was at a meeting sponsored by the Vancouver Lions Club at the Hotel Georgia during which George Murray MLA suggested that the opening up of the Peace River District and the development of the Pacific Eastern Railway were wonderful opportunities for unemployed youth. This message was repeated in early January at a packed meeting in Bufton’s Hall attended by recently-elected CCF MLA Harold Winch.xiii

Also that January, Frank represented the Club, sitting at the head table, to hear Premier Bennett address about 1,000 youth in the Vancouver Hotel ballroom. In the following month he was at an even larger meeting of about 2,000 young people who gathered at Moose Hall, Burrard Street to try to organize a youth political party. Comrades there included the Young Communist League, the Young Socialists, and the Friends of the Soviet Union.xiv

The Club continued to meet at Bufton’s Hall throughout 1934 where they enjoyed monthly lectures on social and economic policy. However, Frank’s continued involvement is less clear.xv

During this period, Catherine Bufton had made sure the Women’s Auillary remained active. After the War Memorial, the next project of the Auxillary was the creation of the Grandview Lawn Bowling Association’s greens which took over Victoria Park, and the building of a large clubhouse on the Salsbury side of the park. It was opened for the first season in the spring of 1933. By dint of careful preparation, hard work and community fundraising, she and the Chamber persuaded the City Council and Parks Board to approve the work as a depression relief effort. The Echo called the $4,000 enterprise “a challenge to the hopeless, pessimistic, disintegrating tide of events.” The facilities, they said, “were a nod to the future in good faith.” The money “was raised by community effort and spent entirely as a relief project. Carpenters and others gave their labor with the sole satisfaction that the labor was its own reward.” The Mayor of Vancouver attended the opening in May 1933. Catherine Bufton was awarded a lifetime membership in the bowling club for her work. Her chief lieutenants had been her husband, Hubert, and Mabel Rutter but they were assisted by a number of others. xvi

Mayor’s Opening Party: CVA 371-999.

Throughout the middle and late 1930s and, so far as wartime restrictions would allow, into the 1940s, groups of Grandview lawn bowlers traveled down to California each January or February to play in major tournaments. In the middle 1930s, some of the traveling bowlers included A.P. Squires of Magnet Hardware and his wife, J.A. and Edith Johnstone of Grandview Jewelers, Catherine Bufton, Charles & Phoebe Smith and Dr Thomas Agnew, in his seventies, who had practiced on the Drive since 1916. It took some managerial or ownership authority to get a few weeks off in winter to gallivant around Southern California playing lawn bowls, and a few bucks too. But this traveling apart, the Grandview Lawn Bowling Association was an equal opportunity recreation, its membership including owners, managers, professionals in law, banking and medicine, plumbers, car salesmen and sheet metal workers, and all of their wives. Dyed-in-the-wool Conservatives happily teamed up with upstart CCFers, Catholics with Masons, athletes with gourmands. All year long, in season and out, with pickup games, tournaments, Association elections, whist drives, teas and dinners, the Grandview Lawn Bowling Club was the social centre for most of the movers and shakers on the Drive. And, at least in the 1930s, the Echo, as the reflective mirror of this same group, tracked every game and event and item of gossip, often on the front page.xvii

In 1936, the neighbourhoods of Vancouver took turns hosting parades to celebrate the city’s 50th Jubilee. When it was Grandview’s turn, on 23rd July, the Echo reported that there were more people “than ever gathered in Grandview before.” Led by the Police Pipe Band, a long procession of commercial floats, decorated cars and trucks made its way through the neighbourhood. As their contribution to the festivities, the Buftons decorated the Queen of Grandview’s float with wonderful floral arrangements that were much admired.xviii

As prominent members of the Grandview Chamber of Commerce, the Buftons were also keen supporters of a Home Improvement Show the Chamber organized in May 1937 at the Masonic Hall on Salsbury Drive. Following an idea that had already proved successful in Kerrisdale and Kitsilano and across the country, the purpose of the Show was to “foster interest” in the Dominion Government’s Home Improvement Program (HIP) and thus encourage the purchase of home building supplies. HIP was “a repair and rehabilitation scheme” which promoted “modernizing bathrooms and kitchens, and converting basements and attics to usable space” through low-interest, partly-guaranteed loans to homeowners. It was the perfect fit for Commercial Drive’s mix of merchants. As usual, A.E. Hughes was the driving force behind the organization of the show – he “devoted almost the whole of his time for some weeks” on it — and he must have been pleased with the participation of local merchants; in fact, requests for space were greater than available. Grandview Furniture, Fred Hamilton Plumbing, Manitoba Hardware and Furnishings, Warman Radio, Harry Hipwell Furniture and the Buftons were among the most prominent exhibitors, but the hall was “filled to overflowing” with all kinds of product displays. The show was opened by Mayor Miller, and visitors were regaled with chamber music from the Gratch Trio. In the end, the show was declared to have been “successful beyond expectations.”xix

When the BC CCF leader Robert Connell was ejected from the party for his refusal to accept a bank nationalization plank, Catherine Bufton defected to Connell’s more centrist Social Constructivist Party. She even ran for the Constructivists in the 1937 Provincial election in Vancouver-Burrard, garnering just 364 votes. She gave a brief introductory speech on May 10 but I have been unable to find any further coverage of her campaign.xx

Image of Catherine in 1937. Highland Echo

In November, Hubert continued his tradition of organizing the Remembrance Day ceremonies at Grandview Park; it was an annual tradition that he would maintain until his death.xxi

After her brief fling with Provincial politics, Catherine threw hersef back into local improvements. During the late 1930s, there was a movement among Grandview’s leadership to push for a Community Centre. The Grandview Chamber of Commerce had floated the idea of a Centre that would include playing fields as well as buildings. A draft resolution from then-President Pete Brown suggested “an athletic club and a hall in which to hold public meetings would be of excellent service to the community, and especially of great value in keeping the youth of our community from frequenting the street corners at night, thereby promoting their physical and moral development and well-being.” To press this idea forward, a sub-committee was formed with Catherine Bufton at its head.

The Parks Board supported the project, offering the north-west corner of Grandview Park as a site for the Centre. Unfortunately, they could not go ahead as the Federal Government still held title to the Park, they having merely leased it to the city in 1928. The lack of Parks Board ownership had led to numerous difficulties since the Park had been established, and years of discussion had proven fruitless. The senior BC member of the Federal Cabinet, the Minister of Health and Pensions Ian McKenzie, MP for Vancouver Centre, was approached by the Chamber. And while he promised to do what he could, nothing positive came from this.xxii

For all these public services, the Buftons continued to develop their business. For example, in November 1938, Hubert filed a patent for a new kind of wreath holder. He was awarded Patent No. 2200948 in May 1940. In the spring of 1939 he was on the committee to supply flowers for the Royal visit, and he was also a signatory to a pledge of loyalty to the King and Queen.xxiii

They also enjoyed summers at their cottage in West Bay on the North Shore, a fine plot on the ocean. Eventually, they would develop this into a grand house with gardens, and a seawall that created a small pool.xxiv

In 1937, Frank opened his own florist shop at 3708 W. Broadway. In January 1939 he was asked his opinion about what the future held for the new year. Noting that, while 1938 had been full of “war scares, unemployed riots, and other facts that counteracted our ideal business conditions … business was better this Christmas than ever before.” Joking that he hoped to retire by the end of the year, the 27-year old said that we should “keep calm and face realities cheerfully.”xxv

When war did come, Frank closed his store and volunteered for the RCAF serving first in Ontario and later in Saskatchewan. His sister Adeline also joined the RCAF on her 18th birthday. While serving, Frank married Eileen Burke in Saskatoon in 1941. Their daughter, JoAnn was born in Yorkton the following February, with their son, Hugh, arriving in the fall of 1943.xxvi

 In 1940, Hubert and Catherine moved from the apartment above 1520 Commercial to their spacious house in West Vancouver. However, both their business and civic interests remained firmly fixed on the Drive. Hubert was active in the Chamber of Commerce’s membership drive in January 1940, and he concerned himself with getting veterans groups organized in support of the new conflict. Both he and Catherine were heavily involved in the first War Bond fundrasing drives, and Catherine organized knitting parties for the troops.xxvii

As the war began to take its toll on morale, the Buftons were at the heart of an idea to serve lunches for Chamber members each month, as an inducement to membership. It was the Ladies Auxiliary – Mabel Rutter, Mrs. Witt, Catherine Bufton, and others – that took the lead, as so often in the past, “making arrangements for catering, table decoration, and serving.” The Buftons of course supplied floral decorations, and Brown Brothers Bakery sponsored the hot courses. The menu for January 1940 included hot meat pie, baked potatoes, carrots and peas, finished off with apple pie, coffee and tea. Also during the war, both Hubert and Catherine were active in veterans’ issues and were on the Committee to publicize Victory Bonds. During the Buy Bonds campaign of June 1941, for example, they dressed the shop as if it were a home in London suffering under the blitz. xxviii

There were also more local matters to take care of. Local merchants had been upset by a proposal from the B.C. Electric Company to do away with conductors on the No 4 streetcar back in 1940. The company had applied to the Province at that time to allow them to operate new one-man cars, but both City Council and Grandview’s Chamber were vigorously opposed. The members of Commercial Drive’s business elite were unanimous in their opposition. Fred and Gordon Hamilton complained that the schedule of service was already “inadequate and that one-man streetcars would further impair it.” Stephen Brown of Manitoba Hardware was concerned about potential “traffic hazards”, and Hubert Bufton voiced a common thought that decreasing employment at that time was not a good idea, especially as the change brought no obvious benefits to the riders or to the district. Moreover, he noted, Commercial Drive’s residential hinterland had “too many elderly people who require the assistance and courtesy that only a conductor can bring them.” It was a relief, then, to the neighborhood and a boost to the Chamber when the Provincial government disallowed the proposal in April 1940.xxix

In August 1943 Hubert was reported as having a “serious illness” and was being treated in General Hospital. In February 1944 he died, aged 57, after “a long illness patiently borne.” His pallbearers were Drive stalwarts Fred Hamilton, Harry Hipwell, Frank Frost, Stephen Brown, S.G. Brown and A.G. Holmes.xxx

For a short while after her husband’s death, Catherine was obliged to continue the florist business alone. In April 1944, she visited the North West Florists’ Association Convention in Portland, Oregon. It must have been a great relief to her when, after his demobilizaion, Frank joined the business. They traveled together to the Florists Convention in Seattle in the late summer of 1946. It was Frank’s active participation that eventually allowed Catherine to retire to her beautiful house and garden in West Vancouver in early 1950, and to begin a series of world travels. xxxi

Frank and his young family first lived in Mount Pleasant but, when he took over proprietorship of the store at 1520 Commerial in 1951, they moved into the apartment above the shop and his wife Eileen began working at the store. As well as looking after business, Frank also continued the family’s tradition of civic responsibility. In 1947 he was vice-president of the Van East Lions Club, and was head of fundraising for the entire BC Lions Club organization in 1949, He was elected to the executive of the Grandview Chamber of Commerce throughout much of the 1950s.xxxii

Frank and Eileen’s children grew up on the Drive in the 50s and 60s.  JoAnn attended Templeton and Britannia School and was a genuine local girl. She and her younger brother Hugh would go to the Grandview Theatre where a ticket cost 15c and popcorn was a dime. On other days, between the time Grandview School of Commerce at First & Commercial was closed and when it was demolished in the early 1950s, they would play in the empty old “eerie” building. JoAnn told me that the ice cream at the Crystal Dairy was just as good as they promised, and she remembers the horses that delivered milk who were stabled behind the Dairy.xxxiii

Upon his return from the War, Frank was glad to re-establish his old friendship with George Wong. “George was so special to JoAnn and her brother as he felt like family to them and treated them as if they were his own children. George spent Christmas with the Buftons, and the Buftons would often visit Chinatown with George for dinner or to attend the Chinese Opera.”xxxiv

In the late summer of 1951, Frank Bufton drove his family to Washington DC for the Florists Telegraph Delivery Association convention. They drove through the States on the way down, and then across Canada for the return, By the time they got back they had clocked 10,000 miles. By this time, the Buftons had opened a second store, at 1685 E. Broadway. Frank’s wife, Eileen, often worked at the new store, but they closed it in May 1953 “due to difficulty in maintaining competent staff.”xxxv

Frank was one of the main speakers at the mass meeting called by the Chamber in February 1952 to make public the community’s discontent with being ignored by City Council for so many years. Frank spoke of the problems with a lack of lighting on the streets. He was also concerned that potentially dangerous high-tension cables were still being strung across the street. As with the other speakers that night, Frank received mighty applause and full support from the thousand-strong crowd packed into the Grandview Theatre.xxxvi

The northwest corner of First & Commercial, site of the now-closed Grandview School, had been the subject of many years’ dispute between the locals and the City Council. Eventually, it was agreed that a two-storey building, architected by Alan W. Grey, housing a new store for Bufton’s Florists and Dr Porter’s medical clinic, with offices upstairs, would be built along 90 feet of Commercial Drive frontage, set back seven feet. At the corner, twenty-five feet was to be set aside for a miniature park, which the Echo called a “novel and attractive feature.” The main purpose for this was to improve traffic sightlines by not constructing the building to the pavement edge. Parking would be behind the Commercial Drive stores, in front of of the proposed Super-Valu, and Bufton’s had already agreed to maintain the mini-park. However, these things are always subject to change and poitical pressure. The final building design was a typical one-storey flat-roofed structure, with the developers complaining that they would have built a second storey but “the city had tied the hands of the owners.” The final configuration had the Bufton’s new florist shop on the corner, with a new store for the Mary Lindfield’s Bo Beepe Baby Shoppe next door. Next to them was a new medical and dental clinic and the north end of the building was anchored by Docksteader Drugs. It was called the Benholme Building.xxxvii

On December 3rd, 1955, the new Bufton store had a soft opening in the Benholme Building. Catherine Bufton made an appearance. A few weeks later, on 20 January 1956, the building was officially opened with Syd Bowman cutting the ceremonial ribbon in the pouring rain. Local ladies served tea and cake in the clinic offices.xxxviii

Both before and after the move, the store became well-known for its award-winning window displays. Their wartime displays have already been mentioned. They were also pleased to work with other local businesses. For example, in June 1949, Bufton’s displayed a special window of a wedding party with orchids, roses, and carnations. The gowns were from Mary Lindfield’s Bo Beep Store, and the staging furniture came from Harry Hipwell’s. Two examples of Bufton’s window displays are shown below.xxxix

Bufton’s Flower Shop, 1520 Commercial, before 1955

Bufton’s at the Benholme Building, 1960s

In early September 1956, continuing his civic work, Frank arranged a large Pet Parade as a fundraiser for the Chamber of Commerce. It was quite a popular success and the Chamber even made a small profit. He maintained his seat on the Chamber executive throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s.xl

In the late 1950s, florists in BC were facing a delicate problem. In the previous year almost a quarter of all death notices had carried the phrase “No flowers by request”. The dip in trade was causing consternation among the 121-150 retail florists in Greater Vancouver which employed some 700 people, not counting the 2,000 growers and wholesalers. Frank Bufton, as chairman of the area’s Joint Florists’ Committee stepped forward to explain the issue in an interview with the Province newspaper. He noted that people adding the phrase to their notices assumed that money would instead be directed to local charities. However, the florists had examined this claim and discovered that very little additional monies actually reached the charities. The florists were, as discretely as possible, trying to improve the situation with a “Living With Flowers” campaign.xli

After the shop had moved to its new location, Frank and his family set up house at 640 Commercial. He owned a 19-foot motor boat which he used for fishing. In the sunmer of 1962, he cruised down to the Seattle World’s Fair with his sister. His wife, Eileen, did not care for boating and took herself off to Ireland to visit relatives.xlii

By this time, their children were grown: Hugh was an accountant with Canadian Airlines, and JoAnn was a teller at the Royal Bank. JoAnn managed to save enough of her wages to buy an economy ticket on a four-month cruise sailing down to Los Angeles and then visiting Hawaii, Hong Kong, Ceylon, the Suez Canal, and Italy before reaching Southampton. Her “formidable” grandmother, Catherine, decided to also take the trip. However, JoAnn was in economy and the matriach traveled first class, so JoAnn had to get special permission to visit her relative aboard. Catherine would make one more ocean voyage, to New Zealand in 1967, before she died in May 1969.xliii

JoAnn married Gordon Fox in 1965 and moved, for a while, to Ontario, returning in 1970. Meanwhile, her brother Hugh joined the florist business in September 1965 as a junior partner. In September 1969, the Buftons opened another shop, this one in the lower level of the Bentall Centre downtown. In the early 1970s, Hugh purchased the business from his father and continued to run it successfully until the late 1980s.xliv

Frank Bufton died in 1984, just a few years before the Bufton Florist’s long life on the Drive finally came to a close when the Benholme Building was demolished to make way for the Il Mercato Mall in the mid-1980s.

Hugh continued to operate the store downtown. During the 1980s he developed a relationship with the multi-millionaire Edgar Kaiser jr. For several years, Hugh was hired to erect and decorate numerous Christmas trees at Kaiser’s mansion on Belmont Avenue in Point Grey. At Christmas 1988, Hugh had argued with Kaiser without success about his demand for extra trees which Hugh believed might overload the house’s electrical system. Sure enough, on Christmas Day the entire house — and the $18 million art collection inside — was burnt to the ground in a fire caused by the trees and their lights.xlv

Kaiser apparently assured Hugh that there would be no repercussions, but his insurance company was not so cavalier. They sued the City of Vancouver (for allowing him to have a home without sprinklers), the Vancouver Fire Department (because his drive way was too narrow for fire trucks to get close), the electrical company, and, of course Hugh Bufton. The legal fees needed for defence crippled the company and left Hugh a broken man. He died, aged just 58, in December 2001.xlvi

When Frank’s wife, Eileen, died in 2005, she was the last of the Buftons to have worked at their store on the Drive. The family had operated the business for more than 60 years and had engaged thoroughly with the community and its needs. They shall be remembered.xlvii

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i  Much of the material in this essay comes from discussions the author was privileged to have with JoAnn Bufton. Marriage: Highland Echo 1941 June 12. See also Highland Echo 1963 Feb 28. Some biographical material from Ancestry.ca.

ii  Military attestation, service, and demobilization papers

iii  City Directory 1920 and 1921; Canadian Census 1921

iv  City Directory 1922 and 1923; see also ad in Sun 1922 Nov 9, p.10

v  Sun 1926 Dec 7, p.1

vi  Museum Of Vancouver, description of item DA 1150

vii  Sun 1925 Jun5, p.14; 1928 Feb 25, p7

viii  Province 1927 Apr 2, p.18; 1928 Jun 4, p.12

ix  Sun 1930 Nov 11, p.4; News-Herald 1938 Jul 1

x  Sun 1931 Apr 30, p.10; Echo 1936 Jan 9; City Directory. The CCF was the fore-runner of the New Democratic Party (NDP)

xi  Sun 1933 Feb 13, p.3

xii  Sun 1933 Feb 28, p.6; see also 1933 Mar 23, p.4; Apr 18, p.3; Jun 6, p.3; Province 1933 May 27, p.5

xiii  Sun 1933 Dec 28, p.2; 1934 Jan 11, p.7; Province 1933 Dec 28, p.7

xiv  Sun 1934 Jan 11, p.7; Feb 10, p.2

xv  From 1935, the Club seems to have moved its meeting to Gradview Hall at 941 Commercial.

xvi  Sun 1933 May 23, p.10

xvii  Echo 1938 Nov 3; 1939 Mar 2; 1942 May 21; 1944 Feb 17.

xviii  News-Herald, Prov, Sun July 24; Echo July 30

xix  Echo May 20, 27

xx  Sun May 8, p.22; Prov May 12, p.5; Jun 2, p.8

xxi  Prov Nov 3, p.5; Sun 1938 Nov 7, p.10; Prov 11, p.30; 12, p.5; Sun 1940 Nov 10, p.18

xxii  Echo 1937 Jun 17; 1938 Feb 10, 17, 24; Mar 14, May 9; Sun 1938 Feb 11, p.9; draft resolution in CVA Gordon Brown fonds AM 376 533-D-6, file 6

xxiii  For patent see http://www.google.ca/patents?id=i_JWAAAAEBAJ&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=%22H.G.+Bufton%22&source=bl&ots=Q-KDLQ0haW&sig=xJ1SlgZwR0DpOHrPf1b_h-gm4zQ&hl=en&ei=OdI4S669IY6QsgPq1b3MBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22H.G.%20Bufton%22&f=false on 28 Dec 2009; Royal visit: Sun 1939 Jan 11, p.3; Echo May 25 and see When the King & Queen of England Came To Grandview (grandviewheritagegroup.ca)

xxiv  The house and property were later purchased by Frank Giustra, and the seaward view was featured on a 50cent Canada Post stamp.

xxv  Sun 1939 Jan 3, p.2;

xxvi  Echo 1941 Jun 12; 1942 Sep 10; 1943 Oct 21; 1963 Feb 28; Prov 1942 Mar 11, p.17

xxvii  City Directory 1941; Echo 1940 Jan 18; Jun 13; Prov May 13, p.9; for the War Bond committee’s efforts see King 2011, p.129

xxviii  Echo 1940 Jan 4, 18; 1941 Jun 12

xxix  Echo Apr 11, 18

xxx  Echo 1943 Aug 12; 1944 Feb 17; Obit in Province Feb 12, p.21

xxxi  Echo 1944 Sep 21; 1946 Sep 19; 1950 Jul 6; in January 1954 she spent a month in Hawaii: Echo 1954 Jan 14

xxxii  City Directories 1945-1951; Sun 1947 Jul 9, p2; 1949 Apr 9, p12; Echo 1950 Feb 23; 1951 Mar 22; Province 1952 Feb 2, p21; Echo 1953 Feb 26; 1954 Mar 4; 1955 Feb 3

xxxiii  Author’s discussions with JoAnn Fox.

xxxiv  MOV, description of item DA 1150

xxxv  Echo 1951 Aug 16, Sep 27; 1953 May 21

xxxvi  Echo 1952 Feb 14

xxxvii  See Battle For The School Site, 1940-1955 (grandviewheritagegroup.ca) ; Echo 1954 Mar 4, 25; Apr 22, 29; 1956 Jan 26

xxxviii  Echo Dec 8; 1956 Jan 19

xxxix  Echo 1949 Jun 2; Images are © Bufton family

xl  Echo 1956 Sep 6

xli  Province Jan 23, p.15

xlii  Echo 1962 Jul 12; 19

xliii  Echo 1963 Feb 21; author’s interviews with JoAnn Fox; Sun 1969 May 19, p.36

xliv  Province 1965 Sep 2, p.34; Echo Sep 23; 1969 Sep 4

xlv  Province 1988 Dec 27, p.5; Sun, p.1; 28, p.3

xlvi  Sun 1989 Mar 15, p3; May 25, p.19; interviews with JoAnn Fox; Hugh’s obit: Province Dec 4, 2005, p.140 Dec 17, p.58

xlvii  Eileen’s obit at Province Dec 4, 2005, p.140

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